wdt_ID Order Citation Country Communication Intervention HIV Area Study Design Summary Intervention Description
1 1,00 Abramsky, T., Devries, K., Kiss, L., Nakuti, J., Kyegombe, N., Starmann, E., ... & Watts, C. (2014). Findings from the SASA! Study: a cluster randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of a community mobilization intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV risk in Kampala, Uganda. BMC medicine, 12(1), 122. Uganda Community engagement Other Randomized Trial SASA!, a community led campaign to reduce intimate partner violence and HIV risk behaviors, successfully increased greater acceptance among women that women can refuse sex (1.28, 95% CI 1.07-1.52), as well as among men (1.31, 95% CI 1.00-1.70). Social acceptance of male violence against women was significantly lower among women (0.54 95% CI 0.38-0.79) and men (0.13 95% CI 0.01-1.15) in intervention communities. The SASA! main goal was to reduce intimate partner violence and reduce HIV-risk behaviors among 18-49 year olds in Uganda by changing community attitudes, norms and behaviors that lead to these things. SASA stands for start, awareness, support and action which was the structure of the intervention. Community activators were trained as well as staff from different institutions such as police and clinics. These community activators then conducted local activism, worked with the media, had communication materials and conducted trainings
2 2,00 AFFORD (2012). Uganda Joint Behaviour Change Communication Survey. Uganda: USAID. Uganda Mass media HTC, VMMC, Condoms Cross-Sectional Study Condoms: Exposure to any HIV communication was associated with a higher likelihood of condom use at last sex (p<0.001). Circumcision: The Stand Proud, Get Circumcised campaign used a mix of radio, billboards, posters, TV, newspaper ads and community mobilization to promote MMC as a way to reduce risk of HIV infection. When evaluated, exposure to any HIV communication was associated with higher intentions to circumcise among uncircumcised male respondents (p<0.001). Uncircumcised males who were exposed to Stand Proud, Get Circumcised were 60% more likely than their unexposed counterparts to intend to get circumcised in the next 12 months and three times more likely than those who were not exposed to know that male circumcision reduces HIV, two times more likely to state that male circumcision is beneficial and two times more likely to discuss male circumcision with others. HTC: Men and women exposed to the Go Together, Know Together campaign and otehr HIV messaging were significantly more likely to intend to test for HIV as a couple in the next 12 months than those not exposed (p<0.001). Intent to test for HIV as an individual was 84% higher among exposed respondents than unexposed. Exposed males were two times more likely while exposed females were 73% more likely to have HIV testing intentions compared to their unexposed counterparts. In addition, couple HIV testing intentions in men were 37% higher among exposed respondents than unexposed respondents. The AFFORD project took place in Uganda and targetting men and women in married or cohabition relationships, it had mulitiple components to it which are listed below. Sexual Networks: Targeted well-educated urban women and men who are married or in long-term relationships; the first phase focused on the concept of the sexual network; the second highlighted the consequences to the individual, partner, and the individual's family. The final phase, which was underway at the time of the survey, highlighted steps people can take to remove themselves from the network, including HIV testing and counseling, condom use, and remaining faithful to one partner. The campaign employed TV and radio spots, billboards, local theatre, call-in radio shows, social media, and mobile phone technology. Go together, Know together: A couple HIV counseling and testing campaign targeted at married and cohabiting couples to assess their risk of HIV infection, test together for HIV, and adopt practices that improve their health. Secondary target audiences included HIV counseling and testing service providers and religious leaders. Activities included branded delivery sites, training for health care providers, provider and client support materials, billboards and posters, radio spots, and call-in radio and TV programs. Stand Proud, Get Circumcised Campaign: Multi-channel campaign promoting safe male circumcision among men as a means to reduce risk of HIV infection. Designed for men between 18-35 years of age and their spouses/sexual partners. Used a mix of radio, outdoor, billboards, posters, TV programming, newspaper ads, community mobilization, and support materials for health providers and their clients. Sites providing circumcision services were labeled with a logo, and all communication referred the audience to a telephone hotline and SMS service for the location of services. Rock Point 256 Radio Serial Drama: Storylines focused on multiple health behavior change messages, including men's gender attitudes and normative practices that increase HIV risk including multiple sexual partnerships, gender-based violence, and alcohol abuse.
3 3,00 Agha, S., Karlyn, A., & Meekers, D. (2001). The promotion of condom use in non-regular sexual partnerships in urban Mozambique. Health Policy and Planning, 16(2), 144-151. Mozambique Mass media Condoms Cross-Sectional Study The JeitO social marketing project in Mozambique demonstrated that evidence of above-average levels of condom use among men and women in Sofala and Manica provinces was due, in part, to their high level of exposure to the intervention. Findings indicate that the JeitO project’s BCC and condom distribution were effective in encouraging safer sex practices among those engaged in sex with non-regular partners. The social marketing project in Mozambique targetted youth and high-risk groups such as commercail sex workers, truckers and others and had a communication strategy that included peer education debates, community-based street theater with messages promoting safer sex, radio spots, print, outdoor advertising and television. The social marketing distribution strategy included targeting non-traditional outlets that were a meeting place for men and women with non-regular partnerships, including hotels, bars, nightclubs and restaurants, as well as gas stations, kiosks, tobacconists, supermarkets, workplaces, traditional healers, itinerant traders and pushcart salesmen. Social marketing condoms were subsidized to ensure that low-income consumers were able to purchase them.
4 4,00 Alibhai, A., J Martin, L., Kipp, W., Konde-Lule, J., Duncan Saunders, L., Rubaale, T., ... & Okech-Ojony, J. (2010). Quality of life of HIV patients in a rural area of western Uganda: impact of a community-based antiretroviral treatment program. Current HIV research, 8(5), 370-378. Uganda Community engagement Continuum of Care Cohort Study Evaluation of the CBART program using community volunteers in Uganda to monitor clients, deliver medications, send reminders to take pills and counsel them as needed found a significant increase in physical (42.7 to 50.1; p<0.01) and mental health (43.4 to 49.5; p<0.01). The CBART program in Uganda targeted HIV positive individuals and operated within an existing primary health care clinic and provided ART using free drugs provided by the Ugandan government to a catchment area of 25,000 rural residents. Health workers were trained using the Uganda Guidelines for ART. Local community volunteers and patient-identified treatment partners were recruited to assist with regular monitoring of treatment. Community volunteers visited patients weekly and monitored adverse effects of treatment as well as treatment adherence through pill counts. Patients with irregular adherence were provided counseling by the volunteers while those with adverse effects were referred to the health center. In addition, volunteers delivered drugs to their patients on a monthly basis. Volunteers were unpaid, and treatment partners helped remind patients to take their tablets twice daily.
5 5,00 Arem, H., Nakyanjo, N., Kagaayi, J., Mulamba, J., Nakigozi, G., Serwadda, D., ... & Chang, L. W. (2011). Peer health workers and AIDS care in Rakai, Uganda: a mixed methods operations research evaluation of a cluster-randomized trial. AIDS patient care and STDs, 25(12), 719-724. Uganda Community engagement Continuum of Care Qualitative An evaluation of the Rakai Health Sciences Program PHWs intervention found that PHWs had a direct role in many patients’ lives, providing psychosocial support and combatting stigma. The processes by which PHWs contributed to decreasing lost to follow-up rates included being present in and knowledgeable about the community and ably assisting with tracking down patients. PHWs were noted to be consistent and reputable sources of information and motivation both in the clinic and in the communities. Additionally, clinic staff responses and qualitative interviews showed that staff believed PHWs were positively impacting adherence. The trial showed the intervention decreased virological failure rates among long-term patients on ART for 96 weeks or more. Trained HIV positive Peer Health Workers (PHW) in Uganda provided adherence monitoring and psychosocial support to fellow patients at clinic sites and during periodic home visits and assisted with triaging sick patients. A general framework for PHW tasks and monitoring was developed, but the intervention was allowed to adapt to needs and problems as they arose.
6 6,00 Atwood, K. A., Kennedy, S. B., Shamblen, S., Tegli, J., Garber, S., Fahnbulleh, P. W., ... & Fulton, S. (2012). Impact of school-based HIV prevention program in post-conflict Liberia. AIDS education and prevention: official publication of the International Society for AIDS Education, 24(1), 68. Liberia School based Condoms Randomized Trial A group RCT in Liberia compared an adapted eight-module HIV prevention course, Making Proud Choices!, to a general health curriculum in elementary and middle schools. It found that the frequency of condom use was significantly higher in the intervention group compared to the control group after nine months (p<0.05). The HIV-prevention curriculum adapted for Liberian youth, called Making Proud Choices! Is an eight-module program based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Theory of Reasoned Action. The program was designed to promote positive condom attitudes and increase skills and self-efficacy to refuse sex, negotiate condom use, and use condoms effectively. The General Health Comparison Curriculum, was a classroom-based science curriculum. Delivered to sixth graders in comparison schools, it included preventive health information on malaria, tuberculosis, worm infestations, and general HIV/STD knowledge, but did not include information about HIV prevention-related skills.
7 7,00 Benefo, K. D. (2010). Determinants of condom use in Zambia: a multilevel analysis. Studies in family planning, 41(1), 19-30. Zambia Interpersonal communication Entertainment education Condoms Survey Exposure to IPC about HIV and AIDS, and exposure to HIV and AIDS-related EE led to increased consistent and occasional condom use. Increases in communication in the community around HIV and AIDS also led to an increase in occasional and consistent condom use. No specific intervention is looked at. Survey respondents (males and femals age 15-49) in Zambia were asked to recall how many AIDS education-entertainment series they had heard or listened to.
8 8,00 Bertrand, J. T., & Anhang, R. (2006). The effectiveness of mass media in changing HIV/AIDS-related behavior among young people in developing countries. TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES-WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, 938, 205. Multi-country Mass media Condoms Literature Review Fifteen programs were reviewed in total for the years of 1990-2004. Five mass media interventions demonstrated significant differences between intervention and control groups on condom use, and three mass media interventions found significant increases in whether condoms had ever been used. Effect sizes varied by study. Interventions reviewed were grouped into radio only, radio with other supporting media and radio and television with other supporting media. Supporting media included posters, print materials, listening groups, and promotional materials such as hats and shirts
9 9,00 Bertrand, J. T., Njeuhmeli, E., Forsythe, S., Mattison, S. K., Mahler, H., & Hankins, C. A. (2011). Voluntary medical male circumcision: a qualitative study exploring the challenges of costing demand creation in eastern and southern Africa. PLoS One, 6(11), e27562. Multi-country Mass media, Interpersonal communication, mHealth VMMC Qualitative Key informant interviews were conducted with seven individuals who provide technical assistance to government VMMC programs to explore the most effective program strategies for demand creation and the associated costs. Reponses varied widely, but all informants suggested some or all mass media funding for VMMC should go to radio. Few suggested bilboards. Most suggested other funding should go toward outreach, including print materials. SMS text messaging was mentioned by three informants. Respondents suggested a mix of mass media, small media, and outreach.
10 10,00 Bessinger, R., Katende, C., & Gupta, N. (2004). Multi-media campaign exposure effects on knowledge and use of condoms for STI and HIV/AIDS prevention in Uganda. Evaluation and Program Planning, 27(4), 397-407. Uganda Mass media Condoms Survey Women who were exposed to two or more types of BCC messages on radio, TV, newspaper, magazines, brochures or leaflets were more than six times as likely to report using a condom at last sex. Among men, condom use at last sex was twice as high for those exposed to BCC messages vs. those who were not. This study in Uganda looked at two dependent variables among men and women 15-54 - knowledge of condoms to prevent HIV and use of condoms at last sex. The hypothesis was that BCC exposure is independently and positivly associated with the likelihood of an individual's knowledge and use of condoms and that there would be a dose effect response Exposure could be messages on the radio, TV, poster, newspapers, magazines, brochures, or leaflets.