M&E is a critical piece of any program activity because it tells you if you are doing what you said you would do and if what you are doing is working. It can also tell you why it is (or is not) working.

Some planning for M&E should be included in the communication strategy, such as identifying the indicators that are directly related to the SBCC objectives. The objectives and indicators should be developed based on formative research and should tell you whether the key messages and interventions are having the desired effect on the target audience.
A full M&E plan should then be developed as a separate program document. Guidance on developing an M&E plan and for developing indicators is available in the online I-Kit.


M&E indicators should include process, output, outcome and impact indicators. The process/input indicators are what was done, the output is who was reached, the outcome is what affect that reach had, and the health impact is the higher-level result of the campaign. Table 5 describes these different types of indicators.

Table 5. Types of M&E Indicators

Output Indicators
Outcome Indicators
Health Impact
Measure what was done through the programExample: Number of counseling training workshops held for MCH nurses Measure who was reached through the program activities
Example: Number of key audience members counseled by MCH nurses
What affect that reach had on behaviorsExample: Percentage increase in number of mothers of 0-6 month old who are exclusively breastfeed among exposed and unexposed populations Measure changes in health outcomesExample: Percentage of under-5s found to be malnourished according to a standard measure of malnutrition